After thorough review of existing data, accident reports and testing data, Working Group 3 conducted real-world accident simulations, in which accident data was used to accurately reproduce actual reported accidents. In this way, the shortcomings of the current testing methods were exposed, thereby leading to the Working Group’s recommendations for testing improvement. The recommended improvements have been realised within this COST Action, and the test apparatus exists. Initial tests clearly show that testing could be vastly improved by the inclusion of angled impact analysis and measurement of the rotational kinematics transferred through the helmet to the head. There is also a need to improve brain injury criteria in order to assess the head injury risk in a more realistic way.
The Working Group’s own testing and biomechanics research also led to recommendations for a new bicycle helmet test method, including improved pass/fail testing criteria. These improvements could contribute to more advanced helmet design.